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    生態文明時代需要怎樣的道德教育

    作者:劉霞 郝志軍   來源:中國教育報   日期:2019-01-03 15:36:31
    導讀:只有真正對自然負起道德責任,進行道德承擔,自然才不會是人類的道德空白地。也只有如此,才能從根本上改變人類的行為方式,為解決生態環境危機作出貢獻。

      黨的十九大明確將建設生態文明作為中華民族永續發展的千年大計,并將生態文明建設寫進黨章。如今,人類最新、最高的文明形態——生態文明時代已經到來,我國已逐漸成為全球生態文明建設的重要參與者、貢獻者、引領者。
     

      生態文明時代人與自然是生命共同體
     

      任何一種文明形態的核心都體現在人與自然的關系上。史前文明時期,自然作為人的對立物,顯得神秘、恐怖;農業文明是黃土地文明,人以自然為中心,適應自然并對自然有限利用;工業文明時期,人作為中心,通過工具理性對自然進行開發改造。生態文明時代的“新”和“高”,旨在確定一種新型的人與自然的關系:尊重、順應、保護自然,達到人與自然和諧共生。
     

      生態文明時代的開啟源于人類對工業文明的沉痛反思。300多年的工業文明在創造和積累物質財富的同時,也對自然生態造成了史無前例的破壞,帶來一系列生態環境危機。人類中心主義是導致環境危機的深層根源,它藐視自然的內在價值,認為自然只對人類存在工具價值,人對自然有絕對至上的優越性。實際上,只強調人類的自由和權利,無法在處理與自然關系時安身立命,現代道德價值觀矛盾在生態危機中更加凸顯出來。
     

      黨的十九大報告首倡“人與自然是生命共同體”,這就肯定了自然作為生命體的內在價值。“像對待生命一樣對待生態環境”,是解決生態問題的根本態度。生命共同體的提出,要求樹立新的生態價值觀,真正認識到自然的內在價值,在經濟發展與生態保護的博弈中作出正確的價值判斷。
     

      生態文明時代需要明確人與自然的道德關系
     

      人與自然是生命共同體,人類的道德視野就必須放大到自然,承認自然的道德地位,明確與自然的道德關系。這是人作為最高生命物種對自然應然的道德關懷。只有真正對自然負起道德責任,進行道德承擔,自然才不會是人類的道德空白地。也只有如此,才能從根本上改變人類的行為方式,為解決生態環境危機作出貢獻。
     

      將道德關系從人與人、人與社會,擴展到人與自然,這是道德關注范圍在生態文明時代進行的最根本的拓展。這種根本性的拓展必然要求道德教育將人與自然的關系納入到教育體系中,將生態環境素養作為個人道德境界新的試金石。
     

      青少年學生不僅是當下參與生態文明建設的主力軍,更是創建未來生態友好型社會的重要力量,他們的生態文明素養關系到當下,牽扯到未來。當前,學校教育要落實《中小學德育指南》,將生態文明教育作為德育內容,更需要從整個價值重塑的角度,對青少年學生進行生態道德教育。通過課程教材教學層面的落實,使他們認識到自然的內在價值,尊重、呵護、順應自然規律,激發他們的生態道德意愿,培育他們對生態問題的道德判斷,使其主動自覺地對自然承擔道德責任。
     

      生態文明時代的道德教育須向中國傳統文化尋找智慧
     

      中華民族向來尊重自然、熱愛自然,從而孕育了豐富的生態文化。源遠流長的中華文化所蘊含的生態文化,積淀著中國人民對自然生態深層的精神追求,蘊含著豐富的生態道德教育資源,我國綿延千年的道德教育的寶貴經驗很多來源于豐富的傳統生態文化。
     

      生態道德教育在目標上要吸收“天人合一”“物我一體”的中國傳統生態文化的價值理念。人的本質是一種關系性存在,人與自然、人與人之間的關系決定了人的道德判斷。中國傳統生態文化的“天人合一”,強調人與自然本源同一、相互依存,是和諧同生的統一體。所謂“天地與我并生,而萬物與我同一”,仁者必須“以天地萬物為一體”“周乎萬物”,才能“道濟天下”。將自然作為生命體,要求人尊重自然規律,要能“輔助萬物之自然而不敢為”;將人與自然作為生命共同體,人得以對自然以精神的關照。有了精神的關照,人與自然的關系從物質層面得以提升,人對自然投入情感,產生情感共鳴,體驗真正的自然之美。對自然的情感寄托和審美體驗,使人達到自我超越,從而實現道德教育的最大期待。
     

      生態道德教育在內容上要吸收中國傳統生態文化的生命價值觀。中國傳統生態文化尊重每個生命的內在價值,尊重生物多樣性,體現了傳統的生命平等觀。“君子之于禽獸也,見其生,不忍見其死;聞其聲,不忍食其肉”,這是孟子的不忍;“掃地恐傷螻蟻命,愛惜飛蛾紗罩燈”,這是佛家的不殺生思想;“勸君莫打枝頭鳥,子在巢中望母歸”,這是詩人將人類的情感投射到動物身上。傳統生態文化不否認人類為了生存的需要向自然獲取資源而不得不傷及其他生命,但人類必須有節制地索取。“山林不登斧,以成草木之長”“川澤不入網罟,以成魚鱉之長”,人在獲取資源的時候必須“釣而不綱,弋不射宿”,要尊重自然生命的自我修復。不僅如此,人類還得關注代際公平,不能“竭澤而漁”。人類只有控制自己的欲望,才能避免自然的報復,“禍莫大于不知足,咎莫大于欲得,故知足之足,常足矣”。傳統生態文化對生命的尊重和呵護,對自然資源的有限開采以及對代際公平的關注,都應該成為當下生態道德教育的重要內容。
     

      生態道德教育在方法上要吸收中國傳統生態文化的“情景交融”。真實的世界是最佳的道德教育場所。“智者樂水,仁者樂山”,暮春三月、泗水河畔,孔子帶著弟子品味大自然山水的品質,暢談人生理想。朱熹提出通過觀察大自然,發現大自然與人類共通的品格,從而愛上大自然:“智者達于事理,而周流無滯,有似于水”“仁者安于義理,而厚重不遷,有似于山”。“天行健,君子以自強不息”“天地有大美而不言”等都是通過對自然的觀察產生的情感體驗,得出的人生感悟。傳統生態文化看重人對自然的洞察力,強調“情”與“景”的交融,提倡通過接觸大自然、感悟大自然,以觸動人的心靈。
     

      道德教育的根本是引導生活的建構。當下的生態道德教育,要提供接觸自然、體驗自然的機會,從而建構尊重、愛惜自然的道德品格,踐行生態行為,過一種生態的生活。人的道德價值觀作為高級的心理素質一直很難評價,生態道德教育同樣如此。將真實的大自然場景作為生態道德教育的重要途徑,能夠激發生態實踐能力,從而通過外顯的、可觀察的生態行為對生態道德教育的效果來作出評價和判斷。(陜西發展觀察)

    (責任編輯:郝祎)

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