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    藝術創作拼什么

    作者:王進玉   來源:美術報   日期:2019-01-07 10:46:51
    導讀:古人云,繪畫創作要“外師造化,中得心源”,這句名言幾乎成了古今中國畫家們的座右銘。其實對于古代畫家來說,在這一點上也許不會出現什么問題,但對于當下的畫家來講,卻問題很大。

      古人云,繪畫創作要“外師造化,中得心源”,這句名言幾乎成了古今中國畫家們的座右銘。其實對于古代畫家來說,在這一點上也許不會出現什么問題,但對于當下的畫家來講,卻問題很大。筆者注意到,現實中有些從事繪畫創作的人壓根兒就不具備一定的觀察能力、審美能力,甚至連最基本的取景和構圖能力都沒有,那么如何奢望他通過一個藝術家獨特的視角來認識造化?如何去師法自然、解讀自然,從而領悟到其中的法則與奧妙?
     

      毫不客氣地講,有些人的寫生也好,創作也罷,不過是對造化、對自然另一種形式的人文破壞。因為從他們的作品里,的確看不出任何美的東西、美的元素存在,感受不到任何美的信息與內涵,筆墨或惡俗,或霸蠻,畫面或污濁,或破碎,如此等等,分明是對筆墨的糟踐、對自然的丑化。當然,這里也可能涉及到創作者個人水平問題。或許他們也想把作品畫好,把筆墨處理得更生動一些,把意境營造地更豐富一些,卻因手頭功夫欠佳、思想眼界不高、審美能力差等緣故,只能破罐子破摔。但是,他們偏偏要假以“創新”“風格”之類的說辭來為自己開脫、貼金,實在是顛倒黑白。
     

      至于“心源”的問題,更加無需多言,沒有一定的文化修養和積淀,“腹無詩書”,怎么“氣自華”,怎么體會自然、得出感悟,又怎么更好地進行藝術上的創新和創造?只憑借手頭上那點技法技巧的功夫,顯然是不夠的,對此前人早已有言,“徒研技巧,即落下乘”。所以,不讀書,不進行文化上的滋養和補充,會直接影響一個藝術家的思想境界與審美能力、審美層次,而它們又直接關系到實際的創作,如作品的立意、取景、章法、布局,以及筆墨、色彩等的運用和表達。思想境界高、審美能力強的人,格調、品味等自然不俗,反之就會比較糟糕,甚至創作得一塌糊涂。當然,不排除天才的存在,但天才畢竟寥若晨星,少之又少。且毋庸置疑,無論是天才,還是常人,文化與修養上的匱乏,都會嚴重影響藝術家的狀態,以及藝術創作的水平。
     

      寫于此,突然讓我想起前段時間看過的一個段子,說的是當人們看到夕陽余暉、孤雁翱翔……你的腦海浮現的是什么?有的人會發出“啊,好多鳥”“啊,真好看”“啊,太美了”之類的簡單感嘆,而也有人會自然而然地想到一句“落霞與孤鶩齊飛,秋水共長天一色”的詩句,或者不由自主地產生與之相關的其它聯想和思考。總之“有準備”的人對畫面的切身感受和主體表達相對來說會更加豐富,也更加深刻。千萬別小看了聯想到的那么一則小小詩句,獲取到的那么一點小小感悟,這其實就是文化修養差異在每個人身上的具體體現,也是判斷一個人是否具有藝術感知力、想象力的重要依據。試想,腦海里沒有詩意、沒有想象,手頭上又如何加以體現呢?而只有具備了這些能力,才有可能對自然、對藝術觸及到更深層次的一種理解和審美,創作出更為經典、成熟的作品,而不止于表面的、膚淺的認識。
     

      但現實中,有很多人總會把那些表面的、膚淺的,甚至原始的、野蠻的一種情感、情緒,當成是藝術創作上的全部激情和真誠,這其實是錯誤的觀點,至少是片面的。原始的情感、情緒固然重要,也固然真實,但藝術不只是這些,“真”只是從事藝術的根本前提,或者說最基礎的一個層面,我們還要在“真”中去探尋和創造更多有關“善”和“美”的東西,從而通過作品來給人以更高層面的精神享受,抑或更加積極的價值引導和思想啟發。這才是藝術真正的作用和意義所在。它絕不只是任由創作者一味地原始情感宣泄就能夠完成的,更不是巧立名目,以糟踐和破壞藝術為代價,來吸引眼球、嘩眾取寵。
     

      因此無論是“外師造化”,還是“中得心源”,說到底,做為一個真正的藝術家、畫家,個人綜合修養問題,自始自終都不能忽略和輕視,它決定著日常的藝術發揮,以及最終所取得的藝術高度。而藝術創作也絕不僅只是解決技法技巧問題那么簡單,它還應該要解決人格精神、思想境界,以及人與自然、社會等關系的大問題。尤其自觀念藝術、特別是當代藝術出現以后,更為如此。(陜西發展觀察)

    (責任編輯:郝祎)

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